Category Archives: Technical

Science in SEO 2014 presentation

I thought that this presentation was worth a share. This was Marcus Tober, the founder of SearchMetrics and presented at SMX in June 2014.

It is always interesting to see these aggregate level mass studies observing and observing over time the variable that may effect ranking.

Take a read.

List of TLDs

I found this useful and thought I would share !

List of common generic domain name extensions


List of restricted TLD / Domains

.BIZ    Restricted for Business
.NAME    Reserved for individuals
.PRO    Restricted to credentialed professionals and related entities
List of country codes / country domain name extensions

.AC    Ascension Island
.AD    Andorra
.AE    United Arab Emirates
.AF    Afghanistan
.AG    Antigua and Barbuda
.AI    Anguilla
.AL    Albania
.AM    Armenia
.AN    Netherlands Antilles
.AO    Angola
.AQ    Antarctica
.AR    Argentina
.AS    American Samoa
.AT    Austria
.AU    Australia
.AW    Aruba
.AX    Aland Islands
.AZ    Azerbaijan
.BA    Bosnia and Herzegovina
.BB    Barbados
.BD    Bangladesh
.BE    Belgium
.BF    Burkina Faso
.BG    Bulgaria
.BH    Bahrain
.BI    Burundi
.BJ    Benin
.BL    Saint Barthelemy
.BM    Bermuda
.BN    Brunei Darussalam
.BO    Bolivia
.BR    Brazil
.BS    Bahamas
.BT    Bhutan
.BV    Bouvet Island
.BW    Botswana
.BY    Belarus
.BZ    Belize
.CA    Canada
.CC    Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.CD    Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
.CF    Central African Republic
.CG    Congo
.CH    Switzerland
.CI    Cote d’Ivoire
.CK    Cook Islands
.CL    Chile
.CM    Cameroon
.CN    China
.CO    Colombia
.CR    Costa Rica
.CU    Cuba
.CV    Cape Verde
.CX    Christmas Island
.CY    Cyprus
.CZ    Czech Republic
.DE    Germany
.DJ    Djibouti
.DK    Denmark
.DM    Dominica
.DO    Dominican Republic
.DZ    Algeria
.EC    Ecuador
.EE    Estonia
.EG    Egypt
.EH    Western Sahara
.ER    Eritrea
.ES    Spain
.ET    Ethiopia
.EU    European Union
.FI    Finland
.FJ    Fiji
.FK    Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
.FM    Micronesia, Federated States of
.FO    Faroe Islands
.FR    France
.GA    Gabon
.GB    United Kingdom
.GD    Grenada
.GE    Georgia
.GF    French Guiana
.GG    Guernsey
.GH    Ghana
.GI    Gibraltar
.GL    Greenland
.GM    Gambia
.GN    Guinea
.GP    Guadeloupe
.GQ    Equatorial Guinea
.GR    Greece
.GS    South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
.GT    Guatemala
.GU    Guam
.GW    Guinea-Bissau
.GY    Guyana
.HK    Hong Kong
.HM    Heard Island and McDonald Islands
.HN    Honduras
.HR    Croatia
.HT    Haiti
.HU    Hungary
.ID    Indonesia
.IE    Ireland
.IL    Israel
.IM    Isle of Man
.IN    India
.IO    British Indian Ocean Territory
.IQ    Iraq
.IR    Iran, Islamic Republic of
.IS    Iceland
.IT    Italy
.JE    Jersey
.JM    Jamaica
.JO    Jordan
.JP    Japan
.KE    Kenya
.KG    Kyrgyzstan
.KH    Cambodia
.KI    Kiribati
.KM    Comoros
.KN    Saint Kitts and Nevis
.KP    Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of
.KR    Korea, Republic of
.KW    Kuwait
.KY    Cayman Islands
.KZ    Kazakhstan
.LA    Lao People’s Democratic Republic
.LB    Lebanon
.LC    Saint Lucia
.LI    Liechtenstein
.LK    Sri Lanka
.LR    Liberia
.LS    Lesotho
.LT    Lithuania
.LU    Luxembourg
.LV    Latvia
.LY    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
.MA    Morocco
.MC    Monaco
.MD    Moldova
.ME    Montenegro
.MF    Saint Martin
.MG    Madagascar
.MH    Marshall Islands
.MK    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
.ML    Mali
.MM    Myanmar
.MN    Mongolia
.MO    Macao
.MP    Northern Mariana Islands
.MQ    Martinique
.MR    Mauritania
.MS    Montserrat
.MT    Malta
.MU    Mauritius
.MV    Maldives
.MW    Malawi
.MX    Mexico
.MY    Malaysia
.MZ    Mozambique
.NA    Namibia
.NC    New Caledonia
.NE    Niger
.NF    Norfolk Island
.NG    Nigeria
.NI    Nicaragua
.NL    Netherlands
.NO    Norway
.NP    Nepal
.NR    Nauru
.NU    Niue
.NZ    New Zealand
.OM    Oman
.PA    Panama
.PE    Peru
.PF    French Polynesia
.PG    Papua New Guinea
.PH    Philippines
.PK    Pakistan
.PL    Poland
.PM    Saint Pierre and Miquelon
.PN    Pitcairn
.PR    Puerto Rico
.PS    Palestinian Territory, Occupied
.PT    Portugal
.PW    Palau
.PY    Paraguay
.QA    Qatar
.RE    Reunion
.RO    Romania
.RS    Serbia
.RU    Russian Federation
.RW    Rwanda
.SA    Saudi Arabia
.SB    Solomon Islands
.SC    Seychelles
.SD    Sudan
.SE    Sweden
.SG    Singapore
.SH    Saint Helena
.SI    Slovenia
.SJ    Svalbard and Jan Mayen
.SK    Slovakia
.SL    Sierra Leone
.SM    San Marino
.SN    Senegal
.SO    Somalia
.SR    Suriname
.ST    Sao Tome and Principe
.SU    Soviet Union (being phased out)
.SV    El Salvador
.SY    Syrian Arab Republic
.SZ    Swaziland
.TC    Turks and Caicos Islands
.TD    Chad
.TF    French Southern Territories
.TG    Togo
.TH    Thailand
.TJ    Tajikistan
.TK    Tokelau
.TL    Timor-Leste
.TM    Turkmenistan
.TN    Tunisia
.TO    Tonga
.TP    Portuguese Timor (being phased out)
.TR    Turkey
.TT    Trinidad and Tobago
.TV    Tuvalu
.TW    Taiwan
.TZ    Tanzania, United Republic of
.UA    Ukraine
.UG    Uganda
.UK    United Kingdom
.UM    United States Minor Outlying Islands
.US    United States
.UY    Uruguay
.UZ    Uzbekistan
.VA    Holy See (Vatican City State)
.VC    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
.VE    Venezuela
.VG    Virgin Islands, British
.VI    Virgin Islands, U.S.
.VN    Viet Nam
.VU    Vanuatu
.WF    Wallis and Futuna
.WS    Samoa
.YE    Yemen
.YT    Mayotte
.YU    Yugoslavia (being phased out)
.ZA    South Africa
.ZM    Zambia
.ZW    Zimbabwe

Common causes of duplicate content

Duplicate content zebraI was trying to list out all the causes of duplicate content – well accidental duplication.

Here is the list to date

  • Inconsistent URLs and links, especially search results or inventory via different attribute routes
  • Similar products or bundles of products with similar description, this can be on your sites of resellers
  • Print friendly pages inc. white papers, pdf downloads.
  • DNS errors ie. no http:// to http://www etc or https !
  • Content management systems who use session cookies in urls

These all produce Errors – and effectively your are ‘pissing in your own pool’. And risk getting duplicate content penalties – even though – you probably don’t realise you have done it. The good news is that all of these can be fixed fairly easily.

As I resolve more here – I will add to this list – send me more if you have them !

Error page handling

We spend a lot of time ‘optimising’ our sites, adding content, building links, keeping the site fresh and ensuring that it all links up nicely.

But, in many corporates, server hygiene and best practice is commonly overlooked. This is normally by omission rather than any kind of malice.

I believe that using and handling errors correctly can be beneficial for SEO. You should set up a Server Response Code monitoring process.

404 errors can be good!

Handling your 404 page properly is an essential part of on-site optimization that is helpful both for your site visitors and search engines.

Legitimate reasons

  • The page no longer exists
    • Inventory has gone
    • Page is no longer relevant
  • There is an inbound link that is wrong!

Bad reasons

  • You moved something and didn’t redirect
  • Your rewriter tool has broken/failed.
  • You changed the URL rules / business logic

How to handle them!

Your server should return that page with a proper 404 header. This way any bots will know the status of that page and clean up their index.

What should be on that page? Well anything you want really.

Normal convention would suggest a polite message that indicates to the real user that the page no longer exists, but ensure it doesn’t blame them!

Maybe a sign post page is a good idea. Use your main search widget, or some static links. Or if appropriate that message with the contents of a normal page, commonly the homepage.

Errors happen – how you deal with them is the mark of a good digital marketer.

Other codes to monitor, for good and bad reasons

The use of 301’s, 302’s and the 500’s. By watching all of these, you can tell the health of your site and helps you tidy up.

Generally a healthy site is a happy site!

Useful links